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Publications relevant to butyric and butyl anaerobes from the University of Wisconsin

Most of the publications from the UW-Madison that are relevant to carbohydrate-fermenting butyric acid anaerobes up to about 1950 are listed here. The magnitude of the Wisconsin effort to understand the biology, taxonomy, handling and practical applications of these organisms cannot be missed. Publications that are more about anoxic/anaerobic techniques in general than about any particular bacterial group are also included. Departments of the University that are named in the papers include at least Agricultural Bacteriology, Agricultural Chemistry, and the Forest Products Lab. The bibliography of anaerobe literature authored by McCoy and McClung was a valuable resource in assembling most of the list.

I have made no attempt to list the many UW publications about Clostridium pasteurianum (a model for studying nitrogen fixation) or about thermophilic clostridia. The comments in the list and any mistakes or omissions that occur are mine.

BOOKS

  • 1939. McCoy E, McClung LS. The anaerobic bacteria and their activities in nature and disease: A subject bibliography (in two volumes). University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • 1941. McClung LS, McCoy E. The anaerobic bacteria and their activities in nature and disease: A subject bibliography, supplement one, literature for 1938 and 1939. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

A 1939 review of the first two volumes of the McCoy/McClung anaerobe bibliography, provided by Dr. Ivan C. Hall.  (pdf download)

PAPERS and ABSTRACTS

  • 1923. Fred EB, Peterson WH, Anderson JE. 1923. Jour. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15:126. I could not acquire this paper. Dorothy Reid in her masters thesis cites it as a study of an acetone-alcohol anaerobe that had been isolated from potato by Northrop et al. Northrop JH, Ashe LH, Senior JK. 1919. J. Biol. Chem. 39:1-21.

  • 1924. Peterson WH, Fred EB, Domogalla BP. 1924. The proteolytic action of Bacillus granulobacter-pectinovorum and its effect on the hydrogen-ion concentration. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 46:2086-2090.

  • 1924. Peterson WH, Fred EB, Schmidt EG. 1924. The fermentation of pentoses by Bacillus granulobacter-pectinovorum. Jour. Biol. Chem. 60:627-631.

  • 1924. Schmidt EG, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1924. The formation of L-leucic acid in the acetone butyl alcohol fermentation. Jour. Biol. Chem. 61:163-1175.

  • 1925. Fred EB, Peterson WH, Carroll WR. 1925. The occurrence of a red pigment producing organism in corn mash of the acetone butyl alcohol fermentation. J. Bacteriol. 10:97-104. A footnote within indicates that a relationship with the Commercial Solvents Corporation had been established no later than sometime in 1924.

  • 1925. Carroll WR, Hastings EG. 1925. The use of living vegetable tissue for securing a favorable gaseous environment for anaerobic bacteria. Jour. Lab and Clin. Med. 11:264-266. Includes the use of potato respiration to establish anaerobiosis. For a detailed treatment of that subject with interesting historical comment, see Novy FG. (1925). "Microbic Respiration IV: The So-Called Aerobic Growth of Anaerobes: Potato Respiration". Jour. Infect. Dis. 36(4):343-382.

  • 1926. Fulton HL, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1926. The hydrolysis of native protein by Bacillus granulobacter pectinovorum and the influence of the carbohydrate-protein ratio on the products of fermentations. Cent. f. Bakt. 2,67,1.

  • 1926. Fred EB, Peterson WH, Mulvania M. 1926. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on the acetone butyl-alcohol fermentation. J. Bacteriol. 11:323-343.

  • 1926. McCoy E, Fred EB, Peterson WH, Hastings EG. 1926. A cultural study of the acetone butyl alcohol organism. J. Infectious Diseases, 39:457-483. This is a deep study of eleven independently-isolated butyl anaerobes. The variously-named orgnisms were deemed too similar to be considered separate species and were named Clostridium acetobutylicum (Weizmann). For another key paper in this regard see Weyer EL, Rettger LF. J. Bacteriol. 14(6):399-424.

  • 1927. Wright WH, McCoy E. 1927. An accessory to the Chambers apparatus for the isolation of single bacterial cells. Jour. Lab. Clin. Med. 12:795-800.

  • 1927. Wright WH, McCoy EF. 1927. An adaptation of the Chambers microdissection apparatus for the isolation of single bacterial cells. J. Bacteriol. 13:15 Abst. 21.

  • 1927. Peterson WH, Wilson PW, McCoy E, Fred EB. 1927. The occurrence of calcium citrate crystals in cultures of butyric acid-forming bacteria and the water of crystallization of calcium citrate. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 49:2884-2888.

  • 1927. Wilson PW, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1927. The production of acetylmethyl carbinol by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Jour. Biol. Chem. 74:495-507.

  • 1928. McCoy E, Hastings EG. 1928. Dormancy of spores of Cl. acetobutylicum and Cl. pasteurianum. Soc. Expt. Biol. and Med. Proc. 25:753-754.

  • 1928. McCoy E, Peterson WH. 1928. The use of pectin in fermentation tests. J. Infectious Diseases 43:475-479.

  • 1928. McCoy E, Higby WM. 1928. Nitrogen fixation by pure cultures of anaerobic butyric acid-forming bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 15:8-9.

  • 1929. Tetrault PA, McCoy E. 1929. A modification of McLeod's anaerobic plate. J. Bacteriol. 17:14. This is a mini-sized, fast-acting anaerobiosis system made by taping together the bottom halves of two Petri dishes to create a sealed chamber. The culture is plated on gelled medium in the inverted part. The bottom dish holds a strongly basic solution of pyrogallol which consumes the oxygen after the tape seal is made.   ***   The pyrogallol/NaOH or KOH system was also used in jars. It has interesting complexities that McCoy would have known about, but could not have explained in an abstract. For instance, NaOH if in excess can sequester CO2, and CO2 is helpful for the growth of some anaerobes especially in lag phase or early growth (most likely as substrate for carbonic anhydrase). Bicarbonate has been used in place of NaOH in the pyrogallol system, but, carbon monoxide which can suppress some anaerobes may be generated by reduction of CO2 if pyrogallol is in excess. For more information: McClung and Lindberg, "The study of obligately anaerobic bacteria", Chapter VI pp. 126-127 in: Manual of Microbiological Methods, 1957, McGraw-Hill Book Company.  --and--  A.T. Willis, Techniques for the study of anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria, Chapter III pp. 86-87. in: Methods in Microbiology vol. 3B, 1969, Academic Press.

  • 1929. Allgeier RJ, Peterson WH, Fred EB. A colorimetric method for the determination of butyric acid. J. Bacteriol. 17(2):79-87.

  • 1930. McCoy E, Fred EB, Peterson WH, Hastings EG. 1930. A cultural study of certain anaerobic butyric-acid-forming bacteria. J. Infectious Diseases, 46(2):118-137. This is a study of similar type and impact as the 1926 McCoy et al. study, this one involving 35 strains and focusing on the butyric anaerobes.

  • 1930. Wilson PW, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1930. The relationship between the nitrogen and carbon metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 19:231-260.

  • 1930. Wilson PW, Fred EB. 1930. The relationship between the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the butyl alcohol forming organism. J. Bacteriol. 19:17.

  • 1931. Johnson MJ, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1931. Oxidation and reduction relations between substrate and products in the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation. Jour. Biol. Chem. 91:569-591.

  • 1932. Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1932. Butyl-acetone fermentation of corn meal. Inter-relations of substrate and products. Indus. and Engin. Chem. 24:237-242.

  • 1932. Hastings EG, McCoy E. 1932. The use of reduced iron in the cultivation of anaerobic bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 23:54-56.

  • 1933. Johnson MJ, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1933. Intermediary compounds in the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation. Jour. Biol. Chem. 101:145-157.

  • 1933. Tatum EL, Peterson WH. 1933. The stimulating effect of potato extract on the butyric acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 25:26-27.

  • 1934. McClung LS, McCoy E. 1934. A Corn-Liver Medium for the Detection and Dilution Counts of Various Anaerobes. J. Bacteriol. 27:35-36.

  • 1934. McClung LS, McCoy E. 1934. Studies on Anaerobic Bacteria: I. A Corn-Liver Medium for the Detection and Dilution Counts of Various Anaerobes. J. Bacteriol. 28(3):267-77.

  • 1934. McCoy EF. British Patent 415311. Improvements in or relating to the production of butyl alcohol and acetone by fermentation.

  • 1934. Tatum EL, Peterson EH, Fred EB. 1934. An Unknown Factor Stimulating the Formation of Butyl Alcohol by Certain Butyric Acid Bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 27(2):207-17.

  • 1934. McCoy E. 1934. A serological study of certain butyric anaerobes of soil. J. Bacteriol. 27:56-57.

  • 1935. McClung LS, McCoy E, Fred EB. 1934. Studies on anaerobic bacteria. II. Further extensive uses of the vegetable tissue anaerobic system. Centbl. Bakt. (etc.) 2 Abt. 91:225-227. The use of moistened oats is described as a means of respiring away the oxygen. Oats store better than potatos and require less preparation. The method was cited and described again by McClung and Lindberg in "The study of obligately anaerobic bacteria", Chapter VI pp. 123-124 in: Manual of Microbiological Methods, 1957, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

  • 1935. McClung LS, McCoy E. 1935. A system for subject reference files for scientific literature. Science 81(2106):461. In 1939 McCoy and McClung published their amazing hard-bound bibliography of 122 years of anaerobe research literature based on this system.

  • 1935. Langlykke AF, Peterson WH, McCoy E. Products from the Fermentation of Glucose and Arabinose by Butyric Acid Anaerobes. J. Bacteriol. 29(4):333-47.

  • 1935. McClung LS, McCoy E. 1935. Heat labile and heat stable antigens in the production of agglutinins for various spore-bearing anaerobes. J. Bacteriol. 29:59-60.

  • 1935. McCoy E, McClung LS. 1935. Application of the H--O technique of agglutination to certain Clostridia. J. Bacteriol. 29(1):59. Named Clostridium species are acetobutylicum, felsineum, roseum, thermosaccharolyticum and bifermentans.

  • 1935. McClung LS, McCoy E. 1935. Studies on anaerobic bacteria VII. The serological relations of clostridium acetobutylicum, Cl. felsineum and Cl. roseum. Arch. Mikrobiol. 6:239-249.

  • 1935. McCoy E, McClung LS. 1935. Studies of anaerobic bacteria. V. The serological agglutination of Clostridium acetobutylicum and related species. J. Infectious Diseases 56:333-346.

  • 1935. McCoy E, McClung LS. 1935. Studies on anaerobic bacteria. VI: The nature and systematic position of a new chromogenic Clostridium. Arch, Mikrobiol. 6:230-238.

  • 1935. Williams FT, McCoy E. 1935. The microflora of the mud deposits of Lake Mendota. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 5(1):31-36. Starch-degrading anaerobes were present. A clostridium acetobutylicum was isolated

  • 1935. Langlykke AF, Fred EB. 1935. Products from the Fermentation of Glucose and Arabinose by Butyric Acid Anaerobes. J. Bacteriol. 29:86-87.

  • 1935. Tatum EL, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1935. Identification of asparagine as the substance stimulating the production of butyl alcohol by certain bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 29:563-572.

  • 1935. Tatum EL, Peterson WH. 1935. The effect of asparagin and related compounds on certain butyric acid fermentations. J. Bacteriol. 29:87-88. ..."asparagin" is in the published title.

  • 1935. Sojlander NO, McCoy E. 1936. A comparison of the properties of Clostridium butyricum Prazmowski and Bacillus saccharobutyricus von Klecki. J. Bacteriol. 32:116. Title only, no abstract

  • 1937. McCoy E. 1937. Studies on Anaerobic Bacteria: XI. On the Properties of the H Agglutinogens of a Mesophilic and a Thermophilic Species. J. Bacteriol. 34(3):321-41. The species are Clostridium butyricum (Piorowsky strain) and C. thermosaccharolyticum

  • 1937. Sjolander NO, McCoy E. 1937. Studies on anaerobic bacteria. XIII. A cultural study of some "butyric" anaerobes previously described in the literature, Zentrl. Bakt. Parasinten., Abt., II, 97:314-324

  • 1937. Langlykke AF, Peterson WH, Fred EB. 1937. Reductive processes of Clostridium butylicum and the mechanism of formation of isopropyl alcohol. J. Bacteriol. 34:443-453.

  • 1937. Langlykke AF, Fred EB. 1937. Mechanism of the formation of isopropyl alcohol by Clostridium butylicum. J. Bacteriol. 33:102.

  • 1938. Elizabeth McCoy, US Patent 2110109. Production of butyl alcohol and acetone by fermentation. Filed January 1933 and assigned to Commercial Solvents Corp. Also disclosed are interesting methods for enrichment and isolation of butyl anaerobes from soil, including the use of potato respiration to establish the anoxic condition in jars.

  • 1938. McCoy E, McClung LS. 1938. Serological relations among the spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 2:47-97.

  • 1938. Sjolander NO, Langlykke AF. 1938. The butyl alcohol fermentation of wood sugar. J. Bacteriol. 36(6):658 (Abstract).

  • 1938. Sjolander NO, Langlykke AF, Peterson WH. 1938. Butyl alcohol fermentation of wood sugar. Indus. and Engin. Chem. 30:1251-1255.

  • 1939. Krauskopf EJ, Snell EE, McCoy E. 1939. A survey of the pantothenic acid and riboflavin requirements of various groups of bacteria. Enzymologia 7:327-330.

  • 1939. Snell EE, Williams RJ. 1939. Biotin as a growth factor for butyl alcohol producing anaerobes. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 61:3594.

  • 1939. McDaniel LE, Wooley DW, Peterson WH. 1939. Growth factors for bacteria. VII. Nutrient requirements of certain butyl-alcohol-producing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 37:259-268.

  • 1939. Woolley DW, McDaniel LE, Peterson WH. 1939. Growth factors for bacteria. IX. Studies of a growth factor for clostridia. Jour. Biol. Chem. 131:381-385.

  • 1939. Peterson WH, Snell EE, McDaniel LE. 1939. Growth factor requirements of bacteria in the lactic and the butyric groups. Internatl. Assoc. Microbiol., Abstr. of Commun., 3rd Internatl. Cong. Microbiol. (New York) p. 205.

  • 1939. Christensen WB, Johnson MJ, Peterson WH. 1939. Properties of the lactic acid-racemizing enzyme of Clostridium butylicum. Jour. Biol. Chem. 127:421-430.

  • 1940. Peterson WH, Snell EE, McDaniel LE. 1940. Growth factor requirements of bacteria in the lactic and butyric groups. Discussion. Internatl. Assoc. Microbiol. (New York, 1939). pp. 500-501.

  • 1941. Wiley AJ, Johnson MJ, McCoy E, Peterson WH. 1941. Acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation of waste sulfite liquor. Indus. Eng. Chem. 33:606-610.

  • 1941. McCoy E, Fred EB. 1941. The stability of a culture for industrial fermentation. J. Bacteriol. 41:90-91. ASM 42nd Annual Meeting, Abstract A10. Brief description of 150 serial transfers of several C. acetobutylicum strains every 4-5 days (long enough to sporulate) in corn mash medium over a two-year period, as well as a series of 200-300 vegetative transfers every 12 and 24 hours. Under vegetative transfer the strains degenerated by the 10-20th transfer. In the longer series, where the cultures were allowed to sporulate, the strains retained their solvent-forming phenotype.

  • 1943. McCoy E. 1943. Industrial Importance of bacteriophage. J. Bacterlol. 45(1):75.

  • 1944. McCoy E, McDaniel LE, Sylvester JC. 1944. Bacteriophage in a butyl fermentation plant. J. Bacteriol. 47:443.

  • 1946. Elizabeth McCoy. US Patent 2398837. Production of butyl alcohol and acetone by fermentation. Filed mid-1940 and assigned to Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. Discloses Clostridium madisonii which today is considered C. beijerinckii. Also discloses and claims a method for generating a bacteriophage-resistant strain.

  • 1947. Potter LF, McCoy E. The fermentation of pectin and pectic acid by Clostridium felsineum strain No. 195. J. Bacteriol. 54(1):36. Strain 195 is a University of Wisconsin isolate. The highest-numbered strain in the McCoy records of this website is A190.

  • 1947. Leonard RH, Peterson WH, Ritter GJ. 1947. Butanol-Acetone Fermentation of Wood Sugar. Ind. Eng. Chem. 39(11):1443-1445.

  • 1950. Gold W, Watson DW. 1950. Studies on the bacteriophage infection cycle. I. A lytic activity assay for bacteriophages of Clostridium madisonii. J. Bacteriol. 59(1):13-16.

  • 1950. Gold W, Watson DW. 1950. Studies on the bacteriophage infection cycle. II. Phage infection and lysis of Clostridium madisonii, a function of pH. J. Bacteriol. 59(1):17-27.

  • 1952. Potter LF, McCoy E. The fermentation of pectin and pectic acid by Clostridium felsineum. J. Bacteriol. 64(5):701-8. The study uses strain 195 and an original Carbone isolate which is strain 41

  • 1984. Kim BH, Bellows P, Datta R, Zeikus JG. 1984. Control of carbon and electron flow in Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations: utilization of carbon monoxide to inhibit hydrogen production and to enhance butanol yields. Appl Environ Microbiol. 48(4):764-770.

  • 1985. Datta R, Zeikus JG. 1985. Modulation of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by carbon monoxide and organic acids. Appl Environ Microbiol. 49(3):522-529.

Masters and Doctoral dissertations - incomplete list

A large number of dissertations about nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism of Clostridium pasteurianum was found at the UW library. Those are not listed here. I have commented on who has provided training or signed a dissertation only where I have seen the actual acknowledgement or sign-off page in the dissertation.

  • 1924. Emil Gustave Schmidt, doctoral thesis. Production of l-leucic acid (alphahydroxy isocaproic acid) by B. granulobacter pectinovorum.

  • 1926. Nelson Mansfield Hunt, masters thesis. The effect of soaps on the surface tension of the medium, and on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum (Weizmann).

  • 1926. Elizabeth McCoy, masters thesis. A cultural study of the acetone butyl alcohol organism.

  • 1928. Rudolph Joseph Allgeier, masters thesis. A colorimetric method for the determination of butyric acid.

  • 1929. Perry William Wilson, masters thesis. The nitrogen metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  • 1930. Marvin Joyce Johnson, masters thesis. The mechanism of the fermentation of glucose mannitol and arabinose by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  • 1930. Rudolph Joseph Allgeier, doctoral thesis. Fermentation studies: 1. A colorimetric method for the determination of butyric acid. 2. The production of acetic and lactic acids from mill sawdust. 3. Changes in the carbon compounds of lake sediments during fermentation.

  • 1932. Marvin Joyce Johnson, doctoral thesis. Studies on the mechanism of the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation: I. Oxidation-reduction relations between substrate and products. II. The determination of small amounts of ethyl and butyl alcohol. III. Intermediary compounds in the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation.

  • 1932. Edward Lawrie Tatum, masters thesis. A substance stimulating the growth and butanol production of certain butyric acid bacteria.

  • 1934. Dorothy Emma Reid, masters thesis. Isolation of and cultural studies on butyric acid producing anaerobes from soil. Reid's thesis was signed by E.B. Fred.

  • 1934. Asger Funder Langlykke, masters thesis. Neutral products in the fermentation of glucose by certain butyric acid bacteria.

  • 1934. June Maxine Alton, masters thesis. An attempt to induce dissociation of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  • 1934. Leland Swint McClung, doctoral thesis. Studies on thermophilic bacteria. Published as: McClung LS. 1935. Studies on anaerobic bacteria: III. historical review and technique of culture of certain thermophilic anaerobes. J. Bacteriol. 29(2):173-187. -- AND -- McClung LS. 1935. Studies on anaerobic bacteria: IV. taxonomy of cultures of a thermophilic species causing "swells" of canned foods. J. Bacteriol. 29(2):189-202.   ***   McClung proposed the name Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum (now Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum) for strains he isolated during his doctoral work. He joined the American Can Company after leaving Wisconsin.   ***   McClung founded the Microbiology Department at Indiana University and headed that department for many years.   Link to Leland McClung's autobiography at Indiana University.

  • 1936. Newell Oscar Sjolander, masters thesis. A cultural study of some "butyric" anaerobes previously described in the literature.

  • 1936. Asger Funder Langlykke, doctoral thesis. Chemical studies on butyric acid anaerobes: I. Products from the fermentation of glucose and arabinose by butyric acid anaerobes. II. Determination of acetylmethyl carbinol and its effect on certain analytical procedures. III. Reductive processes of Clostridium butylicum and the mechanism of formation of isopropyl alcohol.

  • 1936. Fred Tuttle Williams, doctoral thesis. Part II. Studies of certain factors which influence spore germination. Part II. 1. Attempts to increase the heat resistance of bacterial spores. Part II. 2. The effect of repeated transfers on certain spore forming bacteria.

  • 1937. Ellen Marguerite Blair, masters thesis. The acid tolerance of butyric anaerobes from food and soil.

  • 1938. Newell Oscar Sjolander, doctoral thesis. Studies on certain fermentations by butyric acid-forming bacteria.

  • 1938. W. Blake Christensen, masters thesis. Formation and properties of the lactic acid racemizing enzyme of Clostridium butylicum.

  • 1939. William Hubbard Stark, doctoral thesis. Factors influencing the bacterial population of freshwater lakes: lactate fermenting butyric acid anaerobes.

  • 1939. Nelson Earl Rodgers, masters thesis. The effect of rapid serial transfer on the physiology of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  • 1940. Lloyd Everett McDaniel, doctoral thesis. Studies of some factors affecting growth of certain butyl alcohol-producing bacteria.

  • 1941. Jay Oliver Lampen, masters thesis. The occurrence of free and bound biotin as determined by Clostridium butylicum.

  • 1941. Allen Spencer Phelps, doctoral thesis. Studies upon butyric anaerobes with special reference to solvent formation.

  • 1942. Paul Chandos Trussell, masters thesis. Fermentation studies on Clostridium madisonii in relation to bacteriophage.

  • 1943. Jean Elliott Switzer, masters thesis. Serological studies of some bacteriophage resistant strains of Clostridium madisonii. Switzer's thesis research was supervised by Elizabeth McCoy.

  • 1943. Harold John Koepsell, doctoral thesis. The dissimilation of pyruvic acid by cell-free extracts of Clostridium butylicum.

  • 1943. Jay Oliver Lampen, doctoral thesis. Growth factor requirements of certain bacteria.

  • 1943. Margaret Jane Hofer, masters thesis. Effect of sugar concentration on clostridium acetobutylicum.

  • 1943. John Carl Sylvester, masters thesis. Studies on bacteriophage affecting an acetone-butanol anaerob. This is not my typo...the UW online catalog shows "anaerob".

  • 1943. Jay Oliver Lampen, doctoral thesis. Growth factor requirements of certain bacteria.

  • 1947. Reid Hayward Leonard, doctoral thesis. Production of chemicals by fermentation of wood sugars.

  • 1948. Barabara Anne Peri, masters thesis. Studies on host-virus relationships: an investigation of cellular differences between virus resistant and susceptible strains of Clostridium madisonii. Peri's thesis research was supervised by Dennis Watson.

  • 1948. William Gold, masters thesis. Studies on host virus relationships: observations on the physiology of Clostridium madisonii during infection with bacteriophage (bacterial virus). Gold's thesis was signed by Assistant Professor Dennis Watson. Watson earned his doctorate at Wisconsin in 1941 studying tuberculin. He joined the Department of Microbiology at Minnesota in 1949, transporting subcultures of many of the Wisconsin strains with him. The butyrics and butylics among them entered the collection of Dr. Palmer Rogers at Minnesota.

  • 1949. William Gold, doctoral thesis. Studies on the action of bacteriophage in cultures of Clostridium madisonii. Gold's doctoral thesis was signed by Elizabeth McCoy. The research was supervised by Watson.



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